Astronomy 10: concept list for 2nd Exam, Chapters 9-15


nebulae, cirrus, molecular clouds

star formation: shock wave -> fragmentation -> collapse -> protostars

protostar track on HR diagram, birth line, T Tauri stars

4 forces of nature

fission vs. fusion, stability of iron

CNO cycle vs. heavy-element fusion

solar neutrino problem

hydrostatic equilibrium: gravity-pressure balance

evolutionary track through width of Main Sequence on an HR diagram

lifetime = fuel / luminosity

which stars become white dwarfs/neutron stars/black holes when they die

why stars -> giants, why red dwarfs never become giants, evolutionary tracks on HR diagram

degeneracy pressure (electrons, neutrons), Chandrasekhar limit, mass limit of neutron stars

helium flash, carbon ignition, core vs. shell fusion

planetary nebula

white dwarf cooling

why supernovae occur, Type I vs. Type II, difference from novae

main sequence turnoff as an estimate of age

pulsars, lighthouse theory, why spins up and slows down

black holes: event horizon, singularity, gravitational redshift

variable stars, instability strip on HR diagram, RR lyrae & cepheids

open star clusters vs. globular clusters

structure and size of our Galaxy: disk, nuclear bulge, halo

rotation curve and evidence for dark matter

Population I vs. Population II stars and where they are found

spiral tracers, spiral density waves (trailing edge - why?)

self-sustaining star formation

evidence for a massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center

Hubble Sequence/Tuning Fork Diagram: ellipticals vs. spirals vs. irregulars

distance indicators used to calibrate Hubble's constant

look-back time

how we determine the diameter and luminosity of galaxies

evidence for dark matter in galaxies and clusters

rich clusters vs. poor clusters (groups)

galactic cannibalism and collisions

Active Galactic Nuclei vs. QSO (quasars) vs. radio galaxies vs. active galaxies

unified model of AGN, narrow vs. broad emission lines

Olber's paradox, Cosmological Principle: homogeneity, isotropy, universality

evidence for Big Bang: expansion, nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background radation (CMB)

problems with Steady State theory

inflationary universe hypothesis & the horizon problem

fate of universe: critical density, open vs. flat vs. closed

Hot vs. Cold dark matter

age of the universe, cosmological constant, acceleration of expansion

origin of structure - density variations, gravitational instability

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