## Physics Minor Requirements

The department offers two minors-- one in physics and one in astronomy.

The following courses are required for the physics minor:

01:750:203-204 (or any other equivalent physics sequence)

01:750:205-206 (or 229-230 or 275-276)

Twelve credits of any 300- or 400-level physics courses. Recommended courses include 01:750:301, 305, 313, 323-324, 341, 342, 397.

The grade-point average for all courses applied toward the minor must be at least 2.0. No more than one D may be applied toward the minor. Three of the four advanced physics elective courses must be taken at Rutgers- New Brunswick.

## Course Descriptions

Many of the courses listed below have home pages on the Web. Links to these pages can be found at http://www.physics.rutgers.edu/homes-ugcourses.shtml.

01:750:203-204. GENERAL PHYSICS (3,3)

Lec. 2 hrs., rec. 1 hr. Corequisites: 01:750:205-206 and any calculus course. Primarily for students in scientific curricula other than physics.

Elementary but detailed analysis of fundamental topics; motion, gravitation, momentum, energy, electromagnetism, waves, heat, kinetic theory, quantum effects, atomic and nuclear structure.

01:750:205-206. GENERAL PHYSICS LABORATORY (1,1)

Corequisites: 01:750:203-204.

Laboratory to complement 01:750:203-204.

01:750:229-230. ANALYTICAL PHYSICS II LABORATORY (1,1)

Corequisites: 01:750:227 and 228.

Laboratory to complement 01:750:227 and 228.

01:750:275-276. CLASSICAL PHYSICS LABORATORY (1,1)

Prerequisite: Enrollment in an honors program or permission of the department.

For physics majors and honors students.

Experiments in classical physics.

01:750:301. PHYSICS OF SOUND (3)

Prerequisites: Two terms of introductory physics and two terms of calculus.

Primarily for science majors.

The scientific basis of sound: waves, vibrating systems, normal modes, Fourier analysis and synthesis, perception and measurement of sound, noise, musical instruments, room acoustics, sound recording and reproduction, electronic synthesizers, and digital sound.

01:750:305. MODERN OPTICS (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:227-228 or 272-273 or permission of instructor; 01:640:CALC3.

Geometrical optics; electromagnetic waves, the wave equation; superposition, interference, diffraction, polarization, and coherence; holography; multilayer films, Fresnel equations; blackbody radiation, Einstein coefficients, lasers; waveguides and fiber optics; optical properties of materials.

01:750:313. MODERN PHYSICS (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:204 or 228; 01:640:CALC2.

Relativistic mechanics, wave and quantum properties of photons and electrons, Schrodinger equation and its application to the structure of atoms, molecules, and solids; nuclear physics; elementary particles.

01:750:323. ADVANCED GENERAL PHYSICS I (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:203-204 or permission of instructor; two terms of calculus.

For students in the general physics and applied physics programs and others who wish a course in classical mechanics beyond the introductory level.

01:750:324. ADVANCED GENERAL PHYSICS II (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:203-204 or permission of instructor; two terms of calculus.

For students in the general physics and applied physics programs and others who wish a course in electromagnetism beyond the introductory level.

01:750:326. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER-BASED EXPERIMENTATION AND PHYSICS COMPUTING (4)

Prerequisites: 01:750:203-204, 205-206; or equivalent.

Experiments in mechanics, electromagnetism, and modern physics, emphasizing error analysis. Uses the computer as a laboratory tool for symbolic manipulation, data collection, data analysis, simulation, and report writing.

01:750:327. MODERN INSTRUMENTATION (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:203-204 and 205-206, or equivalent. Required for physics majors, but also suitable for psychology, biological sciences, and other physical science majors.

Theory and use of integrated circuits and their interconnection to produce measuring devices, control apparatus, and interfaces for such devices to microcomputers.

01:750:341,342. PRINCIPLES OF ASTROPHYSICS (3,3)

Prerequisites: Two terms of introductory physics and two terms of calculus.

Properties and processes of the solar system, the stars, and the galaxies; origin of the elements; evolution of the stars and the universe; neutron stars and black holes.

01:750:345. COMPUTATIONAL ASTROPHYSICS (3)

Lec. 1.5 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 01:750:341,342 or permission of instructor. Lab schedule will vary through the semester.

Introduction to computational astrophysics, including key algorithms, their implementation in code, and their application to current research in astrophysics. Extended projects feature analysis of real data and simulations.

01:750:346. OBSERVATIONAL ASTRONOMY (3)

Lec. 1.5 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 01:750:341,342 or permission of instructor. Students must have nighttime hours free for observing.

Introduction to the tools and techniques of observational astronomy across the electromagnetic spectrum, and to their application in the context of current research in astrophysics. Extended projects offer each student an opportunity to work with astronomical data from at least two wavelength regimes (among radio, optical/infrared, and X-ray), and in the two core modes of astronomical observations (imaging and spectroscopy).

01:750:351. THERMAL PHYSICS (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:227 or 272 or permission of the instructor; 01:640:CALC3.

Principles of thermodynamics with physical and chemical applications: energy, entropy, and temperature, the three laws of thermodynamics, cycles, open systems, critical phenomena, chemical equilibrium, ideal gas reactions, phase rule, phase diagrams, kinetic theory, introduction to statistical mechanics.

01:750:361. QUANTUM MECHANICS AND ATOMIC PHYSICS (3)

Prerequisites: 01:640:CALC4; 01:750:228 or 273 or permission of instructor.

Introductory quantum mechanics: matter waves, uncertainty principle, stationary states and operators; the Schrodinger equation and its solutions for simple potentials; the hydrogen atom, quantization of angular momentum, spin; complex atoms and molecules.

01:750:368. JUNIOR SEMINAR (1)

For physics majors only.

Development of communication skills needed by professionals in physics and related fields. Oral and written reports, discussions of topics of current interest, and career options.

01:750:381-382. MECHANICS (3,3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:124 or 203 or 271; Corequisite: 01:640:CALC3 or permission of instructor. A theoretical course, primarily for physics majors.

Intermediate treatment of Newtonian mechanics, including particle dynamics, rigid body motion, accelerated and rotating reference frames, Lagrange's and Hamilton's equations.

01:750:385-386. ELECTROMAGNETISM (3,3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:227 or 272 or 324 or permission of instructor; 01:640:CALC3.

An intermediate course for physics majors and others who wish a thorough discussion of the fundamental laws of electromagnetism; electric and magnetic fields, dielectric and magnetic materials, D.C. and A.C. circuits, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic radiation.

01:750:387-388. EXPERIMENTAL MODERN PHYSICS (3,3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:326, 327; corequisite: 361 or 313 or permission of instructor. Credit not given for both 01:750:387 and 389.

Experiments in atomic, nuclear, condensed matter, and surface physics.

01:750:389. EXPERIMENTAL APPLIED PHYSICS (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:326, 327; corequisite: 361 or 313 or permission of instructor. Credit not given for both 01:750:387 and 389.

Experiments in classical and modern physics emphasizing techniques useful for applications.

01:750:397. PHYSICS OF MODERN DEVICES (3)

Prerequisites: Two terms of introductory physics and a course in calculus.

Physical laws and principles underlying modern devices and processes; examples including motors, generators, refrigerators, vacuum tubes, transistors, radio and television receivers, computers, rockets, nuclear reactors, radiation detectors, lasers, and holograms.

01:750:406. INTRODUCTORY SOLID STATE PHYSICS (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:361 and 386, or permission of instructor.

The fundamental properties of metals, insulators and semiconductors; dielectrics, magnetism, superconductivity.

01:750:417. INTERMEDIATE QUANTUM MECHANICS (3)

Prerequisite: 01:750:361.

Vector space formulation, operators, eigenfunctions, bound states, angular momentum, central potentials, approximation methods, scattering.

01:750:418. NUCLEI AND PARTICLES (3)

Prerequisite: 01:750:361.

Nuclear forces and models; classification and interactions of elementary particles.

01:750:431. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY FOR PHYSICISTS (3)

Prerequisite: Proficiency in Calculus and Linear Algebra.

Bayesian analysis, The Central Limit theorem, Parametric and Non Parametric Tests of Significance, Sequence Alignment, Phylogenetic Analysis, Clustering and Pattern Recognition Techniques, Monte Carlo Simulations, Neural Networks and Evolutionary Game Theory.

01:750:441. STARS AND STAR FORMATION (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:361, 385-386.

Observed properties of stars. Internal structure of stars, energy generation and transport, neutrinos, solar oscillations. Evolution of isolated and double stars, red giants, white dwarfs, variable stars, supernovae. Challenges presented by formation of stars, importance of magnetic fields. Pre-main sequence stellar evolution.

01:750:442. HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS AND RADIATIVE PROCESSES (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:361, 385-386.

Radiation and scattering processes in plasma. Detection and X- and gamma-rays. Supernovae and remnants, pulsars. Gamma-ray bursts. Accretion disks and binary star outbursts. Quasars and active galactic nuclei. Cosmic rays.

01:750:443. GALAXIES AND THE MILKY WAY (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:381-382, 385-386.

Properties of galaxies: photometry, kinematics and masses. Disk galaxies: spiral patterns, bars and warps, gas content, star formation rates, chemical evolution. Elliptical galaxies: shapes. Structure of the Milky Way. Nature of dark matter.

01:750:444. INTRODUCTION TO COSMOLOGY (3)

Prerequisites: 01:750:361, 385-386.

Expansion of the universe, techniques for distance estimation. Large-scale structure of universe. Cosmological models: open, closed, flat and accelerating universes. Microwave background: observations, properties and origin. Problems of standard cosmology and preliminary concept of inflation.

01:750:451. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY (3)

Two 80-min. lecs., one 55-min. rec. Credit not given for both this course and 11:628:451 or 16:712:501. Prerequisite: 01:750:204.

Principles of ocean physics. Mass, momentum, heat, and freshwater conservation and atmospheric exchange. Influence of Earth's rotation. The ocean's role in climate. Tides, waves, and currents. Effects of ocean circulation on its biology and chemistry.

01:750:464. MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS (3)

Prerequisites: 01:640:423 or equivalent.

Physical applications of linear algebra, the exterior calculus, differential forms, complexes and cohomology. Applications will include Hamiltonian dynamics, normal mode analysis, Markov processes, thermodynamics, Schroedinger's equation, special relativity, electrostatics, magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, and wave equations.

01:750:487,488. SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHYSICS (3,3)

Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

Study of selected areas in physics.

01:750:491,492. RESEARCH IN PHYSICS (BA,BA)

Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

Independent research supervised by a member of the department.

01:750:493,494. INDEPENDENT STUDY IN PHYSICS (1-4,1-4)

Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

Independent study supervised by a member of the department.

01:750:495,496. HONORS IN PHYSICS (1-4,1-4)

Prerequisite: Invitation of chairperson.

Supervised independent research or reading in experimental or theoretical physics culminating in a seminar conducted by the student.

01:750:497,498. HONORS IN ASTRONOMY (1-4,1-4)

Prerequisite: Invitation of chairperson.

Supervised independent research or reading in astronomy, culminating in a seminar conducted by the student.